SHIVA - Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere

About SHIVA

Parameters to be measured on the Falcon aircraft

Chemical species
Comment
Ozone Stratospheric tracer, photochemical product gas, greenhouse gas
Halocarbons (inc VSLS) (1) In situ GC-MS
(2) Whole air samples – analysis on the ground at airport
NO2, BrO, IO, HONO, CH2O, C2H2O2 Halogen radicals (VSLS atmospheric degradation products)
Br2, HBr, ClNO2 VSLS degradation products
N2O (nitrous oxide) Greenhouse gas, stratospheric tracer
SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride) Greenhouse gas, anthropogenic tracer used for dating of stratospheric air
CO (carbon monoxide) Tracer for combustion (pollution, biomass burning)
CO2 (carbon dioxide) Tracer
H2O (water vapour) Tracer
NO, NOy Tracer for convective outflow, tracer for anthropogenic pollution, lightning product gas
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) Tracer for anthropogenic organic pollution, tracer for biomass burning
Perfluorocarbone (e.g. C7F14) Artificial air mass tracer for ship / aircraft - Lagrangian experiment

There will also be measurements of temperature, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and altitude. Also, a forward-looking cockpit video camera will record clouds and pollution layers.

Parameters to be measured on the RV Sonne

Measured Parameter
Comment
In seawater
Halocarbons (inc VSLS) In situ GC-MS
Phytoplankton Size, cell number, species composition
Chlorophyll Concentration and photosynthetic efficiency
Pigments Chic3, peridin, fuco, 19-hex, neox, etc
PCO2 (dissolved carbon dioxide) Sensorr
PO2 (dissolved oxygen) Sensor and Winkler titration
Nutrients Nitrate and phosphate
Gas tension Pressure of all dissolved gases in seawater
Salinity Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) Sensor
Sea surface temperature Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) Sensor
DMS, N2O,CH4 In situ GC and post cruise analysis
Radiation Upward and downward fluxes
In air
Halocarbons (inc VSLS) (1) In situ GC-MS
(2) Whole air samples – analysis on the ground at airport
BrO, IO Halogen radicals (VSLS atmospheric degradation products)
Br and I in aerosol Filter sampling
Ozone, methane, CO2, H2O Greenhouse gases; continuous surface measurements (UV absorption instrument and PICARRO cavity ring down spectrometer)
CO (carbon monoxide) Tracer for combustion (pollution, biomass burning)
CH4 (methane) Greenhouse gas
N2O (nitrous oxide) Greenhouse gas
OH radicals Determine atmospheric lifetime of VSLS and other trace gases
Non methane hydrocarbons Primary pollutants (anthropogenic tracers)
HCl, ClNO3, SO2, HNO3 Chemical ionisation mass spectrometer, oxidation products
Radiosonde Balloon-borne sondes (up to 30 km altitude)
Vertical temperature, pressure, humidity, wind profiles
Ozonesonde Balloon-borne sondes (up to 30 km altitude)
Vertical profiles of ozone
Water vapour sondes Balloon-borne sondes (up to 30 km altitude)
COBALD sondes (clouds) Balloon-borne sondes (up to 30 km altitude)
Tracer release unit Release of perfluoro-carbons for ship / aircraft
Lagrangian experiment
Precipitation; In-situ measurements
Standard Ship parameters Position, temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, water depth

Halocarbons to be measured during SHIVA (aircraft and ship)

Compund
Lifetime
(Days)
Atmospheric Source / possible climate feedback
Medium and short-lived halocarbons (mixed sources)
CH3Br
250
Mixed sources including oceanic, biomass burning (BB), vegetation, soils, and anthropogenic. Sensitive to changing land use and climate
CH3Cl
360
Mixed natural sources including BB and vegetation. Sensitive to changing land use and climate
CH2Br2
120
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CHBr3
26
Oceanic (small anthropogenic source), climate sensitive
CH2BrCl
150
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CHBrCl2
78
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CHBr2Cl
69
Oceanic, climate sensitive
C2H5Br
34
Oceanic and anthropogenic, climate sensitive
CH3I
7
Oceanic and terrestrial, climate sensitive
CH2ClI
<1 day
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CH2BrI
<1 day
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CH2I2
<1 day
Oceanic, climate sensitive
CH2Cl2
14
Mixed sources: anthropogenic and BB, ocean
CHCl3
150
Mixed sources: anthropogenic, BB, soils, sensitive to changing land use / climate
C2HCl3
46
Mainly anthropogenic
C2Cl4
99
Mainly anthropogenic (possible oceanic source)
CH2ClCH2Cl
70
Mainly anthropogenic
C2H5Cl
30
Mainly anthropogenic
Long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons
CFCs
(11, 12, 113, 114, 115)
>45 yrs
Changing stratospheric transport changes fractional halogen release
HCFCs
(22, 142b, 141b)
>9 yrs
Changing stratospheric transport changes fractional halogen release
CH3CCl3
5 yrs
Changing stratospheric transport changes fractional halogen release
CCl4
26 yrs
Changing stratospheric transport changes fractional halogen release
Halons
(1301, 1211, 2402)
>16 yrs
Changing stratospheric transport changes fractional halogen release
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